Facile fabrication of a silicon nanowire sensor by two size reduction steps for detection of alpha-fetoprotein biomarker of liver cancer
Van Binh Pham, Xuan ThanhTung Pham, Thanh Nhat Khoa Phan, Thi Thanh Tuyen Le and Mau Chien Dang
We present a facile technique that only uses conventional micro-techniques and two size-reduction steps to fabricate wafer-scale silicon nanowire (SiNW) with widths of 200 nm. Initially, conventional lithography was used to pattern SiNW with 2 μm width. Then the nanowire width was decreased to 200 nm by two size-reduction steps with isotropic wet etching. The fabricated SiNW was further investigated when used with nanowire field-effect sensors. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated SiNW devices were characterized and pH sensitivity was investigated. Then a simple and effective surface modification process was carried out to modify SiNW for subsequent binding of a desired receptor. The complete SiNW-based biosensor was then used to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), one of the medically approved biomarkers for liver cancer diagnosis. Electrical measurements showed that the developed SiNW biosensor could detect AFP with concentrations of about 100 ng mL−1. This concentration is lower than the necessary AFP concentration for liver cancer diagnosis.